About Cognition, Knowledge, Thoughts and Reflections

The concept of reflection can be found in writings dating back to Plato, who stressed great value on reflecting through narratives or dialog, but the modern beginning of the study began with Flavell and became a trend in psychology in the 70s.

Epistemological beliefs are the philosophies related to the nature of knowledge, and metacognition, in a more recent review Flavell, J. (2000) divides this theory into two subjects, executive process and knowledge. The executive process, which consists of planning and monitoring adaptable thoughts which include the interaction of two levels: (Papaleontiou-Louca, 2008)

  • the creative, divergent and drifting mind and
  • the executive process, that tries to keep it all on task.

This leads me to question…is there agreement or conflict between epistemological beliefs and metacognitive thinking?  

Kandinsky, 1926 Several Circles. Oil on Canvas

John Dewey, viewed reflection as a fundamental part of active learning, uses the theory of imagination and the philosophy of art to discuss critical discipline in “Art As Experience”

“For while the roots of every experience are found in the interaction of the live creature with its environment, that experience becomes conscious, a matter of perception, only when meanings enter it in that are derived from prior experience. Imagination is the only gateway through which these meanings can find their way into a present interaction…” (Dewey, 1934)

This attitude is reflected in Jean Piaget’s theory concerning the development of the individual knowledge from birth till adulthood and the cognitive processes which analyzes the attainment of knowledge explaining the process of intellectual development. (Cherry, 2018)

And from my findings, metacognitive thinking implies the knowledge of individuals concerning their cognitive processes, (not development) and their attempts at planning, monitoring and regulating these processes.

I think it is safe to speculate that metacognition is a critical discipline that uses a variety of epistemological processes and by understanding these processes I will be better informed of my own learning,  planning and reflective processes.


Cherry, K. (2018) Piaget’s Theory: The 4 Stages of Cognitive Development online https://www.verywellmind.com/piagets-stages-of-cognitive-development-2795457 [accessed 03-12-2018]

Dewey, J (1934) Art As Experience. Penguin Group, NY.

Kandinsky, V. 1926 Several Circles. Oil on Canvas online http://www.wassilykandinsky.net/work-49.php [accessed 03-14-2018]

Papaleontiou-Louca, E. (2008) Metacognition and Theory of Mind  http://www.cambridgescholars.com/download/sample/59586 [accessed 03-12-2018)

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